After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was occupied by the Allied Powers, and between 1919-1922, the Turkish War of Independence took place, referred to as the National Struggle Period. During this period, many useful and harmful societies were created in Anatolia. Well, who are those harmful societies that supported the occupation, which began with the Mudros truce and acted together with the invaders? What is the purpose of harmful societies and who supports harmful societies?

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Societies harmful to national existence

Societies that act in accordance with the policies of the allied powers and the government of Istanbul and oppose the state and independence are called harmful societies. So who are these harmful societies?

Kurdish Teali Society

The Teali Kurdish Society, founded on December 30, 1918 in Istanbul and having branches in the eastern provinces, set as its goal the creation of an independent Kurdish state. This association had relations with the Freedom and Entente Party and British government officials. The biggest supporter of the society, striving for the creation of an independent Kurdish state, was England.

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Teali-i Islamic Society

The Teali-i Islam Society was formed to prevent national strife in Anatolia. The society, whose center is in Istanbul, has worked extensively in and around Konya. They recognized that the only salvation of the country is the caliphate and the sultanate. The biggest supporter of this association is Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası.

Society of British Fighters

The British company Muhipleri Cemiyeti was founded on May 20, 1919 in Istanbul. The society, which included people like Damat Ferit Pasha and Sait Molla, defended the British Mandate and showed hostility to the Turkish national existence. The British-backed society sought to prevent a war of independence, causing confusion in Anatolia. However, he became a supporter of all hostile actions and organizations against the War of Independence.

Freedom and Entente Party

Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası, founded in 1911 in Istanbul, is the most important opposition party formed against the Unity and Progress Committee. The society, which received the support of the British and collaborated with them, viewed the National Wrestling as a trade union and pursued a provocative policy in internal uprisings. However, he took the position of prosultanate and caliphate.

Wilson Principles Society

The Wilson Principles Society, also known as the Wilson Principles Society, was founded on December 4, 1918 in Istanbul and lasted only two months. This society, which believed that the Ottoman Empire would become civilized and endure thanks to the United States, defended the American mandate.

Osmaniye Peace and Salvation Party

The center of the society founded by the opponents of the Union and Progress is Istanbul. He argued that loyalty to the Sultan was the only way to save the country. He collaborated with the Freedom and Entente Party and pursued a policy based on the principles of constitutionalism and democracy. The party “Peace and Selamet-i Osmaniye” received the support of the British.

Military Nigeban Society

The Nigehban military society, which is among the harmful societies, was founded in Istanbul during the period of the national struggle. This society consisted of a group of former, discharged or retired soldiers who declared their opposition to the war of independence. This society, which was on the side of the Sultanate, contributed to the emergence of major uprisings around Hendek, Duzce and Adapazary.

Mavri World Society

The Mavri Mir Society, which is among the harmful societies, was established in the Greek Patriarchate of Istanbul. The purpose of this society, which received financial assistance from the Greek government, was the formation of gangs in the Ottoman provinces, the management of these gangs, holding rallies and propaganda activities. He was also responsible for delivering weapons and ammunition to the Ottoman Empire under the guise of humanitarian aid.

Pontic Greek Society

The Pontic Greek society, centered on Samsun, sought to create a Pontic Republic in the lands stretching from Inebolu to Batumi. Non-military members of this society formed gangs and engaged in espionage in the interests of Russia and Greece. The Pontic Greek Society was supported by the British to facilitate the invasion of Anatolia.

Ethnic-i Eterya Society

The Ethnik-i Eteria Society was founded in 1814 under the name of Filik-i Eteria to gain the independence of Greece. This society caused the Cretan uprising in 1896. During the First World War, he wanted to revive the old Byzantium in the lands where the Greeks lived.

Cordos Society

The official name of the society, which operates as a subdivision of the Ethnik-i Eteria society, is the Hellenic Immigration Commission. The purpose of the society was to convince examination boards from abroad that the Greek population was in the majority in Western Anatolia, the Eastern Black Sea region and Thrace. For this reason, they immigrated to these regions of the Greeks from Greece and Russia.

Ginchak Societies (1887) and Dashnak Sutyun (1840)

These societies were created to arm the Armenians, spread Armenian nationalism and ensure the independence of the Armenians of Eastern Anatolia. The Dashnak Society was founded in Georgia, and the Ginchak Society was founded in Geneva. The biggest supporters of these societies were the French.

What are the common features of harmful societies?

Harmful societies
  • They served the interests of the states based on the empire and facilitated the invasion of the country.
  • They sought to raise uprisings and prevent the liberation of the nation.
  • These associations disregarded the independence and power of Turkey and put their own interests ahead of those of the nation.
  • They defended the mandate and patronage and believed that independence and power would come in this way.
  • In the Ottoman Empire, which was in a difficult situation, everything was done so that the people would not support the National Struggle.
  • Operating in various regions of the Ottoman Empire, they contributed to the invasion of enemies.
  • Using pressure and force, they drove the Ottoman citizens to despair.

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