The Roman Republic is the period that began after the overthrow of the kingdom in 509 BC. In the first 200 years of this period, the territory of the republic expanded to the Mediterranean Sea. Over the next century, sovereignty was established in the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, North Africa, and what is now southern France. For the past 200 years, the Roman Republic has dominated Macedonia, much of Anatolia, and the rest of France. We have told you when the Roman Republic was founded and what happened during this period. Here is the history of the Roman Republic.
You can also check out this content: “From Rome to the Ottoman Empire: 10 great empires in history and their fall.”
History of the Roman Republic
A number of important events took place at the end of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Roman Republic. In 509 BC King Lucius Tarquinius the Proud was overthrown by the Roman nobility. Lars Porsenna, king of Clusium, laid siege to Rome. The city signed a support pact with Carthage. The temple of Capitoline Jupiter was consecrated and a new post of consul established.
Fasti consulates (documents with the names of consuls or magistrates describing the main events of the period) are essential to understanding the Roman Republic from 503 BC, when they were considered reliable. Another very important method used to understand this period of Roman history is the clavus annalis ritual. This practice began a year after the consecration of the temple of Capitoline Jupiter and consisted of hammering once a year a bronze nail to the right of the altar. The first nail was hammered in 508 BC. In the temple of Capitoline Jupiter there was a cella of Jupiter, as well as Minerva and Juno.
cella: Architectural section in Christian prayer houses and pagan temples.
After the departure of Tarquinius, Rome suffered from both internal and external conflicts. Much of the country in the 5th century BC was spent on fighting rather than developing. From 510 BC to 275 BC the city developed into a dominant force throughout the Italian peninsula as the government faced a number of internal political problems. From the Battle of Regalla (496 BC), when Rome defeated the Latins, to the Pyrrhic War against Pyrrhus of Epirus (280-275 BC), Rome was the dominant and militant superpower in the west. Through this expansion, the social and political structure of the republic gradually developed. From this simple beginning, the city would establish a new government and dominate the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, North Africa, France, Macedonia, and Anatolia. These lands will remain under the control of the Romans throughout the Republic until the formation of the Roman Empire.
Transition to the Roman Republic
Rome’s transition from a monarchy to a republic led to serious internal social tensions. The lack of control over the city forced the neighboring tribes to besiege the city and reduce its power. For this reason, Rome had to reaffirm its identity many times during the first seventy years of the Republic. Later, years later, consuls were appointed to replace the leadership of the Roman kings. Republican government in Rome began with the introduction of a government headed by two consuls, annually elected by the citizens and appointed by the Roman Senate.
Many historians believe that the praetor maximus (the most authoritative praetor in the Roman Republic) was appointed for only one year in the early stages of the Roman Republic. His duties were later divided in two, electing two consuls at the same time to govern Rome. This form of government continued until 449 BC, when the law of Valeria Horaria was passed.
Praetor: Name given to Caesar’s guardsmen in ancient Rome. This word means “a person who rules a country”.
The position of chief magistrate was not limited to the “patricians” (a name given to a group of elite families) who constituted the Roman Senate and controlled the army and priests from the time of Romulus, for there is evidence that plebeians, i.e., unprivileged Roman citizens, were consuls before 485 BC Political instability forced the most powerful factions to make alliances among themselves. From 485 BC the patricians no longer allowed the people to take part in the government of the state and began to control all civil and religious affairs.
The Republic is also known as a period of constant rivalry between patricians and plebeians, as well as the period when Roman power reached the entire Italian peninsula, and Roman law was established in 450 BC. Law 12 tablets. It was also the time of many battles for equality between the Romans. The laws of the 12 Tables were written to meet the demands of the people.
Until the Laws of the 12 Tablets were written, Roman law was considered sacred because it was established by monarchs and popes. It became the basis of all the laws of the Western world. Between 133 BC and 27 BC Rome was subject to great internal tension, which led to numerous civil wars. By proposing a series of laws in favor of the plebeians, the Graco brothers also caused a social crisis in Rome.
fall of the republic
Unlike the Empire, the Republic will not be destroyed by any external threat, but rather succumb to an internal threat. The fall of the Republic will be due to its inability to adapt to an ever-expanding empire. Even the ancient Sibyl prophecies foretold that defeat would come from within, not from foreign invaders. The request of Roman allies for citizenship was a sign of these unrest in the so-called social wars of the 1st century BC (90–88 BC).
For years, Roman allies paid tribute and provided soldiers for the war, but were not considered citizens. Like their plebeian relatives years ago, they wanted representation. It took an uprising to change everything. Full citizenship was finally granted to the people of the entire Italian peninsula (with the exception of slaves), although the Senate warned Roman citizens that it would be dangerous to grant them citizenship. Later, Julius Caesar extended citizenship beyond Italy and gave it to the inhabitants of Spain and Gaul.
Around this time, the Roman statesman and poet Marcus Tillius Cicero uncovered a plot led by Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catiline to overthrow the Roman government. Cicero also believed that the Republic was in decline due to moral decay. Along with fear and anxiety, similar problems attracted the attention of three people in 60 BC. e.: Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey the Great and Mark Licinius Crassus. Crassus rose to fame by defeating Spartacus and his followers in 71 BC. Gnaeus Pompey the Great was known both in Spain and in the East.
Caesar, on the other hand, proved to be a capable general. Together, the three men formed what historians call the First Triumvirate. For almost a decade they controlled both the consulates and the military commands. After Caesar left the consul in 59 BC, he and his army moved north into Gaul and Germania. While Gnaeus Pompey Magnus became governor of Spain (although he ruled from Rome), Crassus was defeated and killed at the Battle of Carrhae.
Tension grew between Gnaeus Pompey the Great and Caesar. While Gnaeus Pompey Magnus was jealous of Caesar’s success and fame, Caesar wanted to return to politics. These differences eventually led them to war, and they met at Pharsalus in 48 BC. Pompey was defeated and fled to Egypt. Caesar fulfilled his destiny by conquering both the eastern provinces and northern Africa, returning to Rome a hero who was hailed as dictator for life. Many of his enemies and a few of his allies saw his new position as a serious threat to the establishment of the Republic, and despite a series of popular reforms, his assassination in 44 BC. brought the Republic to its knees. His heir and stepson Octavian subjugated Mark Antony and eventually became the first emperor of Rome as Augustus. The Republic perished, and from its ashes the Roman Empire was born.
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