The Committee of Union and Progress, which initiated the proclamation of the Second Constitutional Monarchy in the Ottoman Empire and was active between 1908 and 1918, is a political party founded on May 21, 1889. This society continued to exist in a parliamentary structure governed by the triumvir system and Sultan II. He sought to end the reign of Abdulhamid. We’ve told you everything you need to know about the Union and Progress Committee.

You can also read this content: “Goals, supporters, activities: Societies that harm the national existence in all aspects.”

What is union and progress?

The Committee of Union and Progress was founded by young patriots who wanted to recreate Kanun-i Esasi to get rid of the depression in the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 19th century, as a secret organization called Ittihad-ı Osmani Cemieti at the Military Medical School on May 21, 1889 . was established. This society initiated the proclamation of the Second Constitutional Monarchy. However, after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the society became history in 1918.

Why was the Unity and Progress Committee established?

Union and Progress Committee

The influence of the ideas of justice, equality and freedom, which they wanted to instill in all mankind with the help of the French Revolution, also touched the Ottoman Empire. Thinkers who saw that the state was about to disappear wanted to transfer these ideas to the people and organize them in the same way as in Europe. Young people who saw that the civilized world was moving towards prosperity and freedom, developing in all areas, created a society called “Ittihad-i Osmani” to ensure constitutionalism and be its protector. This society, which in the future will be called the Union and Progress, is called upon to show society the right path. However, it was not successful when it was first installed.

The nations that left the Ottoman Empire modernized in all areas, especially in their armies, with the support of foreign states. In the face of this development, the Turkish people were oppressed and retreated even further. The Turkish nation, oppressed by financial and economic chains such as capitulations and Duyun-i Umumiye, could not develop and keep up with the pace of Europe. Against the backdrop of this danger of extinction, the feeling of freedom among the patriots became a strong ideal. However, it also connected people to each other, forcing them to face the danger of extinction.

The main goal of the Committee of Union and Progress is to prove that the real masters of the country are the nation.

What are the goals of society?

Some articles outlining the purpose of the “Unity and Progress” Committee were first published in 1895. The program of the organization was explained by the newspaper Şurayı Ümmet, which began publishing in Egypt in 1902, as follows:

  • Protect the territorial integrity and political independence of the Ottoman Empire from foreign interference.
  • Ensure a constitutional monarchy, overthrow tyranny and apply the provisions of the Principles of Law 1876.
  • So that all Ottomans are together, because happiness and salvation are in the Ottoman Empire.
  • Inform people in government about the progress and needs of the period and invite them to action.
  • Spreading the idea of ​​reforms among the communities of the Ottoman Empire.
  • To prove to foreign countries that the Ottoman Empire had the skills of developed countries.
  • To develop and strengthen the Ottoman caliphate and dynasty in such a way that it would be beneficial to the state.

Founders of Union and Progress


Society was created secretly and developed over time. Here are the first founders of the society:

  • Caucasian Mehmet Resit
  • Abdullah Cevdet from Arapkir
  • Ibrahim Etem Temo from Ohrid
  • Huseynzade Ali
  • Ishaq Sukuti of Diyarbakir

Among the first to join the society are people such as Suleiman Emin, Asaf Dervish, Naji Pasha and Ismail Safa Bey. The young students who founded or became members of the Society were united by the Second World War. It was the dissatisfaction with the administration of Abdulhamid and the depression that the state was experiencing. These young people believed that Abdul-Hamid’s administration should be overthrown and constitutionalism should be established to save them. That is why they got together and organized propaganda on this issue.

Who is on the Unity and Progress Committee?

  • Yunus Nadi Abalioglu
  • Abdullah Cevdet
  • Abdulkadir Bey (Governor of Ankara)
  • Abdulkadir Qemali Ogyutchu
  • Abdulkerim Pasha
  • Adnan Adivar
  • Ahmet Agaoglu (politician)
  • Agop Babikyan
  • Ahmed Riza
  • Ahmet Lutfullah
  • Ahmet Nesimi Treasurer
  • Ahmet Shukru Bayindir
  • Ahmet Shukru Oguz
  • Ali Fuat Jebesoy
  • Ali Munif Yegenaga
  • Artin Bosgezenyan
  • Asim Meherdaroglu
  • Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
  • Atif Kamchil
  • Aziz Ali (Egyptian)
  • Fethi Okyar
  • Rauf Orbay
  • Kazim Ozalp
  • Baha Tevfik
  • Celal Bayar
  • Bekir Sami Kundu
  • Refet Bele
  • Mithat Sukru Bleda
  • Kami Baikurt
  • Mr. Cavid
  • Cemal Azmi
  • Ali Chetinkaya
  • Cevat Abbas Gurer
  • Fevzi Chakmak
  • Circassian Rashid
  • Churuksulu Mahmud Pasha
  • Enver Pasha
  • Mehmet Akif Ersoy
  • Esref Senser Kuskubasi
  • Eyup Sabri Akgol
  • Kara Kemal
  • Mustafa Wasif Police Station
  • Emanuel Karasu
  • november
  • Sukru Kaya
  • Kazim Karabekir
  • Kilizade Hakki
  • Nuri Killigil
  • Ibrahim Colak (soldier)
  • Ibrahim Kazim Takhtakilich
  • Ibrahim Temo
  • Ismet Inonu
  • Isaac Sucuti
  • Ismail Janbulat
  • Ismail Hakki Kilikoglu
  • Cemal Pasha
  • Mumtaz Haji Adil Arda from Izmit
  • Hadji Bekir Shumer
  • Haji Mehmed Nuri Efendi
  • Hafiz Hakki Pasha
  • Hafiz Ibrahim Effendi
  • Hafiz Mehmet
  • Khalil Ibrahim Nakipoglu
  • Khalil Kut
  • Khalil Khinge
  • Hamdi Aksoy
  • Hamit Husnu Kayakan
  • Hamit Kapanci
  • Hasan Fehmi Tumerkan
  • Hasan Tahsin Uzer
  • Hashim Sanver
  • Hikmet Emin
  • Hussein Avni Aktulga
  • Hussein Avni Zaimler
  • Hussein Cahit Yalchin

Committee of Union and Progress and Atatürk


Many believe that Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was one of the founders of this society. However, Atatürk joined the society later than the founding members. However, ever since he first entered the society, he has criticized and rejected the internal and external policies of the society. When members of the society did not heed Atatürk’s warnings, Atatürk formed an opposition wing with Ali Fethi (Okyar). He also fought against attempts by members of the Union and the Progress to take over the leadership of the National Wrestling after they went abroad.

Müfit Özdesh and Mustafa Kemal joined the revolutionary committee called “Watan” in 1905. At first, Lutfi Bey was in charge of the administration of the society, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was in charge of education and organization, and Dr. M. Mustafa took responsibility. The secret organization was transformed into “Vatan ve Hurriyet Dzhemieti”, and its branches were opened in a short time.

His friends, who swore allegiance to him and opened a branch in Thessaloniki, later became members of the “Unity and Progress” Committee. Later, on October 29, 1907, at the invitation of Ali Fethi, Atatürk joined the Committee of Union and Progress at number 322.

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