From the mid-1960s, Hollywood cinema began to undergo major changes. The Hollywood blockbusters of that era were magnificent works not only in size but also in content. A new genre was created during this period, combining filmmaking techniques with social commentary to produce some of the most iconic films ever made. This genre eventually became known as the American New Wave cinema, or more commonly known as the New Hollywood movement.
The new Hollywood era began with the efforts of directors trying to break away from studio tradition, such as John Carpenter’s Halloween (1978), Francis Ford Coppola’s The Godfather (1972) and Martin Scorsese’s Taxi Driver (1976). A period that can be said to have actually begun with the 1967 work Bonnie and Clyde continued until the early 1980s. These two films, considered by critics to represent the triumph of commercialization and marketing over art and personal expression, also marked the end of New Hollywood cinema. One is Heaven’s Gate from the 1980s, and the other is Star Wars: Episode VI – Return of the Jedi from 1983.
What was New Hollywood Cinema aiming for?
The works of this period, where we will see a significant increase in big-budget films; It was a constant challenge from filmmakers and actors to traditional film industry norms such as stereotypes and studio ownership.
New Hollywood was primarily an American film movement, defined by a shift in control from the studio to the director. Gone are the days of comprehensive studio micromanagement, large-scale production, and the studio system.
Ultimately, New Hollywood was all about the director’s freedom to go out and tell the stories they wanted to tell, experimenting with new techniques and technologies to push the boundaries of media.
What is the contribution of New Hollywood Cinema to world cinema?
This new era was a time of many radical changes. The new Hollywood movement will determine many of the things we think about today when it comes to filmmaking, including who gets nominated for an Academy Award or what types of movies get funded.
The French New Wave, foreign Italian neo-realist film movements, and innovative directors like Akira Kurosawa inspired the 50s and early 60s as the studio system faltered.
The heyday of Western cinema is almost over, and epic cinema has lost its former charm. In this context, studios and producers began to realize that audiences wanted more complex stories and so followed in the footsteps of New Hollywood.
After the rather serious commercial success of The Godfather, the studios were willing to take the risk that resulted in some of the most iconic works of the American canon. Making bold debuts in films such as Scorsese, Taxi Driver and Raging Bull; Films such as Polanski’s Chinatown also gave the movement a distinct flavor.
After all, New Hollywood was an era that produced some of the best productions that forever changed American cinema and filmmaking around the world. The culture clash space gave writers and directors a freedom that sparked a wave of creativity and inspiration in Hollywood that has never been seen since.
Excerpts from New Hollywood Cinema
It would be impossible to fully summarize New Hollywood in this article alone. Indeed, hundreds of works can be used to study this film movement without going into too much detail. You can access the resource from this link.
In addition, we have reviewed for you 8 films from this film movement, in which we draw a common line from the cinematic understanding of the period and its purpose. Enjoy reading…
1. Five Easy Pieces – Five Easy Pieces (1970) – IMDB: 7.4
Five Easy Pieces, a 1970 drama film written by Carol Eastman and directed by Bob Rafelson, starring Jack Nicholson, Karen Black and Susan Anspach. Movie; It received 4 Oscar nominations for Best Picture, Best Actor in a Leading Role, Best Supporting Actor and Best Original Story.
Robert Dupea is an oilfield worker who abandoned his once-promising career as a concert pianist. While living with Raiette, a waitress at a restaurant, Robert learns from his sister that his father is unwell; Taking Ryatt with him, he travels to Washington to see her.
There, he confronts his past, as well as the wealthy and cultured family he left behind. Robert, who still finds his family, almost all successful musicians, as arrogant and annoying as ever, will open up many old wounds during this visit.
2 American Graffiti – The Teenage Years (1973) – IMDB: 7.4
1973 comedy-drama film directed by George Lucas and produced by Francis Ford Coppola; There are 5 Oscar nominations in the categories Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Story, Best Editing and Best Supporting Actress.
In 1962, after graduating from high school, a group of teenagers living in a small town in California spend their last night traveling together on a cruise line. The dilemmas of these buddies, who are on the threshold of adulthood and preparing to take their first steps in real life, proceed against the backdrop of the most memorable rock and roll hits of that era. One of the many things that young people don’t know about the future is that things won’t be the same in the morning.
3. Bonnie and Clyde – Bonnie and Clyde (1967) – IMDB: 7.7
Bonnie and Clyde is a 1967 neo-noir crime drama film directed by Arthur Penn. “Bonnie and Clyde”, which was taken to the US National Film Archive for preservation and is considered one of the best films of all time, won the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress and Best Cinematography and was nominated for 8 Oscars. The film stars Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway.
One day, Bonnie Parker got bored with her life and wanted a major change in her life. When he meets an attractive young punk named Clyde Barrow, he begins to think he has a chance.
As Clyde dreams of a life of crime that will save him from the hardships of depression, they begin to fall in love with each other and soon have wild adventures from Oklahoma to Texas.
4. “Midnight Cowboy” – “Midnight Cowboy” (1969) – IMDB: 7.8.
Midnight Cowboy, a 1969 drama film directed by John Schlesinger; It won Oscars for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Screenplay and was nominated for four Oscars. Starring Dustin Hoffman and Jon Voight.
Texas freshman Joe Buck comes to New York for the first time. He travels in hopes of earning money by pretending to be a real “scammer”. On this journey, Joe will meet a new man named Ratzo Risso. Both begin to think that for the first time they have made a real friend.
When Ratso meets the homeless Joe on the street for the second time; invites him to move into his apartment in an abandoned house. Ratso has severe coughing fits and dreams of moving to Florida where he believes he will recover as his health declines. Once Joe finds the money he needs, he decides to accompany his friend to Florida.
5. In Cold Blood – In Cold Blood (1967) – IMDB: 7.9
In Cold Blood, a 1967 neo-noir crime film directed by Richard Brooks and based on the 1966 nonfiction novel of the same name; It was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Director, Best Screenplay, Best Music and Best Cinematography. The film stars Robert Blake and Scott Wilson.
Two young men break into a rich farmer’s house and commit a botched robbery. Entering the same house the next day, the police try to piece together the details of the crime in order to find those responsible.
The first information they have; On November 15, 1959, at 2:00 am in the rural town of Holcomb, Kansas, four members of the Clutter family were awakened, tied to their hands and mouths, and then brutally murdered by two unknown perpetrators. . It is not known who could have committed such a cruel and senseless act, why and what the reaction of society might be.
6. Last Picture Show – Last Show (1971) – IMDB: 8.0
Based on the 1966 semi-autobiographical novel of the same name, The Last Picture Show is a 1971 drama film directed by Piotr Bogdanovich. Starring Timothy Bottoms, Jeff Bridges and Ellen Burstyn. The film, which won Oscars for Best Supporting Actress and Best Supporting Actor, was nominated for 6 Oscars, including an Oscar for Best Picture.
In 1951, a group of high school students come of age in a northern Texas town isolated from the rest of life. This city is disappearing unnoticed as people leave for big cities to earn a living and raise their children.
Children’s lives until they build a future outside the city; bounded by a dilapidated pool hall and dilapidated movie theater, the legacy of his friends and Sam’s mentors. Particularly close friends of Sonny’s are Dwayne and Jaycee, who have just entered the age of exploration of their sexuality; They think about what the future holds for them in this small town.
7. Graduate – Season of Love (1967) – IMDB: 8.0
The Graduate, a 1967 romantic comedy and drama directed by Mike Nichols, won Mike Nichols an Oscar for Best Director and was nominated for six Academy Awards. The film stars Anne Bancroft, Dustin Hoffman and Katharine Ross.
Benjamin Braddock returns to California after successfully completing college. He is proudly greeted by the family, but Ben has no idea what to do with the rest of his life.
This inexperienced young man is soon seduced by Mrs. Robinson, who follows him regularly and becomes the wife of his father’s partner. They soon begin to meet regularly in hotel rooms. Some time later, Benjamin hits Miss Robinson’s daughter and things get more complicated than ever before.
8. Cold-Blooded Luke – Behind Bars (1967) – IMDB: 8.1
The 1967 drama film Cold Blooded Luke, directed by Stuart Rosenberg, brought George Kennedy an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor and was nominated for 3 more Oscars. Paul Newman will star in the film.
Luke Jackson is a cold-blooded, aloof man who doesn’t live up to social expectations. After being arrested for turning off parking meters while intoxicated, Luke is sentenced to two years in prison in Florida, where he quickly gains a reputation as a brave man who does not bow to authority.
Luke, who is admired and glorified by other inmates, a villain who will be despised by the jailers and who will do everything to obey him. How long can a person’s resistance last in the face of incessant violence and cruelty?
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