The Kahramanmaras earthquakes have been recorded as one of the most devastating disasters in our recent history. As a result of earthquakes, which killed thousands of our people, many residential areas were almost completely destroyed. The extent of the destruction caused by the earthquake has not yet been fully determined. Recently, the Office of Disaster and Emergency Management (AFAD) published a report on the earthquakes that occurred on February 6, which includes important issues. Field studies of magnitude 7.7 and 7.6 earthquakes are included in the preliminary assessment report.The choice of reinforcement type and manufacturing defects were among the main negative situations that were not forgiven by the movement of the soil. Once again, the importance of involving accredited craftsmen, apprentices and builders in building structures has come to the fore.‘ was stated. Let’s look at the details together.
Following the earthquakes in the center of Kahramanmaras, AFAD produced a report to identify the faults that caused the earthquake, identify surface cracks and identify the causes of structural damage.
The report, which includes the results of field studies conducted in the region between February 10 and 16, states that very strong earthquakes were felt in Kahramanmaras, Hatay, Adiyaman, Gaziantep, Malatya, Kilis, Diyarbakir, Adana, Osmaniye, Sanliurfa and Elazig, resulting in deaths and serious damage.
According to the AFAD report, the earthquakes affected an area of 108,812 square kilometers in 11 provinces.
It was stated that two major earthquakes in Kahramanmaras were recorded as “the most destructive earthquakes in the history of the country”.
“The first earthquake was strong in Kahramanmaras and Hatay, and the second earthquake was especially strong in Malatya.”
On this issue, the report “According to the strong ground motion records, field observations and information received from the inhabitants of the region, it can be said that the first earthquake was stronger in Kahramanmaras and Hatay, and the second earthquake was stronger, especially in Malatya.expressions were used. In addition, the report included important clarifications about the causes of damage after the earthquake. The main causes of damage were assessed under different headings.
The report said that serious surface damage was found in some residential areas after the earthquakes.
It was noted that on soft soils, the disturbances became more pronounced and manifested themselves in the form of wide cracks. On the other hand, it was stated that in some soils liquefaction occurred, and in some places surface deformations took place directly under the structures and caused great damage. In addition, it was stated that in addition to destroyed buildings, there were buildings in areas where ground failure occurred that were not damaged by the earthquake, indicating that the demolition was caused by more than just the ground.
According to studies conducted in the area of the earthquake, one of the main causes of destruction is “damages in building elements”.
The report indicated that there were not enough clamps at the joints, and the joints were made in such a way that they did not hold the longitudinal reinforcement. In addition, it was indicated that flat reinforcement was used in the columns, beams and walls, sleepers were not used in the canopies, the lengths of the longitudinal reinforcement were short, so stripping took place at the joints. In addition, extraneous elements such as coarse gravel and timber were reported to have been found in these vulnerable areas.
The poor quality of the concrete used in buildings in the region was once again exposed following the AFAD report.
In a concrete damage report, “In the research carried out, it was found that the aggregate granulometry used for concrete does not match the size, flat-surface pebbles are used directly from the river or sea shore, concrete burns because it is not irrigated, and brittle cracks are experienced.expressions were used.
The AFAD report indicated that the village structure also caused various damage.
This is mainly due to damage to structures built by local residents living in rural areas, in accordance with local materials, climate and geography.In regions with very cold winter months, the use of soil solution during frost and thaw periods increased damage. Another construction error caused by an earthquake is the lack of horizontal and vertical support elements, uneven and weak engagement.” expressions were used.
During earthquakes, first 290-kilometer and then 130-kilometer surface ruptures occurred.
Taking into account”Surface discontinuities have significantly displaced transportation routes such as roads, railroads, garden fences, and field boundaries in many regions. expressions were used. In addition, “shifts” up to 6.5 meters were observed, which was one of the interesting points in the report.
In the structural damage section of the report, it was stated that non-compliant structures were severely damaged.
Paying attention to the importance of regulation rules in the formation of structural damage, “Obviously, buildings built without observing norms and constructive principles have suffered serious damage. Once again, the importance of using ready-mixed concrete, ensuring the granulometry of the aggregate and the precise placement of the concrete in the mould, was seen again.” expressions were used.
On the other hand, it was pointed out that, in cases where the ground floors are to be used as office space, these floors must be built with the necessary precautions to avoid the formation of a “soft floor”.
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